Gynecomastia is the abnormal augmentation of breast size in men. This pathology can create significant psychological problems for the man. Many men undergo surgery. In the initial stage, pain may be noted around the nipple. At a later stage there is an abnormal increase in adipose tissue and gland.
The causes of gynecomastia can be genetic, hormonal, pharmacological or related to other pathological conditions.
Hypogonadism and some cancers can cause hormonal imbalance.
Drugs such as anabolic steroids, drugs used to treat HIV, anti-androgens (to treat prostate cancer) and antidepressants can be responsible for gynecomastia. The most important cause is the hormonal imbalance of testosterone and estrogen.
The increased production of estrogen in the body can be due to:
Gynecomastia can be:
The diagnosis is made after an examination by a specialist breast surgeon. That is why a clinical examination and ultrasound imaging are necessary.
Treatment can be pharmacological such as tamoxifen or anastrozole without spectacular effect.
Surgery can give an excellent cosmetic result without scarring, with plastic surgery techniques.
Liposuction can be performed mainly in pseudogynecomastia.