Gynecomastia In Men

Gynecomastia is the abnormal augmentation of breast size in men. This pathology can create significant psychological problems for the man. Many men undergo surgery. In the initial stage, pain may be noted around the nipple. At a later stage there is an abnormal increase in adipose tissue and gland.

The causes of gynecomastia can be genetic, hormonal, pharmacological or related to other pathological conditions.

Hypogonadism and some cancers can cause hormonal imbalance.

Drugs such as anabolic steroids, drugs used to treat HIV, anti-androgens (to treat prostate cancer) and antidepressants can be responsible for gynecomastia. The most important cause is the hormonal imbalance of testosterone and estrogen.

The increased production of estrogen in the body can be due to:

  • In excessive testosterone production in adolescence or in the intake of anabolic steroids. To protect itself, the body converts a percentage of androgens into estrogens. Estrogen is responsible for the growth of the mammary gland.
  • In excessive estrogen production that may be due to genetic predisposition, drugs, phytoestrogens, xenoestrogens, alcohol abuse, cannabis, liver failure, lung, prostate, testicular and other pathologies.


  • Adolescent gynecomastia: occurs in adolescence (12-17 years) and is a normal process. This phenomenon usually subsides within 2 years.
  • Congenital gynecomastia: the primary cause is mainly due to a decreased hormonal balance which may be hereditary.
  • Induced gynecomastia: mainly due to the administration of specific drugs.

Gynecomastia can be:

  • True gynecomastia with mammary gland development
  • Pseudogynecomastia with the development of adipose tissue usually in obese individuals.
  • Mixed gynecomastia with the development of the mammary gland and adipose tissue.

The diagnosis is made after an examination by a specialist breast surgeon. That is why a clinical examination and ultrasound imaging are necessary.


Treatment can be pharmacological such as tamoxifen or anastrozole without spectacular effect.
Surgery can give an excellent cosmetic result without scarring, with plastic surgery techniques.
Liposuction can be performed mainly in pseudogynecomastia.


  • Proper diet that consists of foods that contain low fat and are rich in fiber
  • Avoidance of alcohol
  • Avoidance of processed foods
  • Avoidance of excessive meat consumption
  • Physical exercise
  • Maintainance of a normal body weight