Benign Breast Diseases


It is the most common breast neoplasm in young women. Clinically, it is a well-circumscribed tumor, mobile, painless, it can be multiple or bilateral. An invasive cancer or in situ or more commonly a lobular cancer, can invade the fibroadenoma or develop primarily in it (mainly affects older women).


Cysts refer to microscopic or macroscopic dilatation of the final excretory ducts of the lobular unit. They can be single or multiple.


It is a rare neoplasm that usually develops in the lumen of the inframammary duct but also possibly in any other part of the breast. Intraductal papilloma may develop a palpable mass. In 70% of cases, it is accompanied by a serous or hemorrhagic discharge. The differential diagnosis of an intraductal papilloma should be made with intracystic carcinoma.


It is a well-defined mass that can be detected by mammography and ultrasound with elastography. Rapid growth or sudden change in texture is an indication for surgery.


It usually occurs in young women and the diagnosis is made mainly by ultrasound, palpation and less often mammograms, due to the density of the breast. Symptoms of pain appear a few days before menstruation. These are small and large cysts. The dense breast in these cases may hide some malignancy.


Breast adenosis is an increase in the number of end follicles of the lobules. There are different types of adenosis such as sclerosing adenosis, tubular adenosis, apocrine adenosis. Foci of adenosis may be infiltrated by breast carcinoma.


It is a benign tumor and occurs mainly in people aged 40-50 years. The hamartoma appears sonographically as a tumor separated from the surrounding mass gland. Macroscopically, it has a greasy texture. Microscopically it includes adipose tissue, fibrous layer, fibrocystic lesions, in some cases smooth muscle fibers and rarely cartilage.