Diagnostic procedures


Nipple discharge

Most of the time the discharge is a sign of hormonal disorders, benign and in rarer cases of cancer. The mammologist must be attentive to the characteristics of the discharge (color and whether it is secreted from one or both nipples). The discharge can be analyzed under the microscope by a cytologist.


In case of eczematous damage to the nipple, the area of ​​the damage can be scraped and cells can be taken that will be analyzed under the microscope. It is not a difficult test.

FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration)

In the case of a tumor we can examine the nature of the cells. This examination is very simple and is usually done by ultrasound and does not require local anesthesia. It can also be performed to analyze the axillary lymph nodes. The cytological finding is analyzed by the cytologist.


It is a simple examination that requires local anesthesia. Only with the histological examination we can investigate the biological characteristics in case of cancer and the receptors (ER, PRG, HER2 and KI67). With this additional examination of the receptors, we can know the true identity of the cancer and the treatments that the patient will follow before or after surgery, in case of malignancy.